tyres and car servicing

Maintenance-Emissions-and Privacy: The OBD Story

Maintenance-Emissions

Maintenance-Emissions

Of course, this all started before the 1950′. As a result, car engines and their faults were diagnosed and repaired by a few gauges and hand adjusted. Hence, by a mechanic. Most automotive systems were done like this.

I remember when I was an apprentice mechanic, in a small British leyland independent garage in Batley Yorkshire UK. Whenever there was a suspicious engine problem. Then our chief mechanic “Brian” would put a long screwdriver to his ear and the other end to the engine. Quietly, listening for any sound that would give him a clue as to what the problem could be?

Naturally, as time went by then cars became more complex and problems became more complicated. Therefore, I remember the middle of the 1960’s . Engine problems became to rely more and more on using diagnostic equipment. Our boss “Tom” leased a massive machine with a video display. Thus, I think that it was made by Tecalamit, but I could be wrong?

Of course, the machine looked massive to me. Wires came out of it from all directions. Subsequently, I never got to learn how to use it, it was deemed as too complicated for an apprentice. The machine was a video display terminal and it was to help us with diagnosing engine problems. As far as I could remember the machine was able to check the engines temperature and vacuum also the oil pressure.

Maintenance-Emissions move on

Later in the 1960’s came the computerized systems. With the introduction of the fuel-injected models of Volkswagen Type 3 cars. Consequently, followed by the sporty 280Z made by Datsun . Following this, in the 1980’s General Motors put its computerized “Assembly Line Diagnostic Link ” into service. Hence, this was to examine error codes with the speed of 160 baud. However, this speed increased to 8192 baud by 1986 along with UART or “Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter” at half duplex. This type of diagnostics continued until the invention of complete on-board diagnostic packages. Of course that we see today.

The next part follows in this interesting article-

Source: Maintenance, Emissions, and Privacy: The OBD Story | Hackaday

flat tyre

Flat Tyre-A Woman’s Guide to Changing their own Wheel?

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 Women Drivers do often change their flat tyre

Sometimes it may be great to play a damsel in distress. So, having a strong and well-toned man fix your flat tyre. Importantly,  I think every woman ought to know how to change to the spare wheel. After all, having your tyre blow is never something anyone plans. Of course, you may not have any ready eager boy scout waiting around to rescue you. There is no need to keep the wheel changing in a man’s domain. Times are changing and you should too. Time to empower yourself and get ready to tackle that flat tyre !

 1. First of all, if there is a place for you to move your car out of the way !

So, if there is a place to where you can get out of the way, then move your car there. Make sure oncoming traffic will be able to see you. Turn on your hazards and if you have an warning triangle. Then place where it will be clearly visible. Also make sure the place you move your vehicle to as flat and even as possible. Avoid soft ground and inclines. Whenever possible place some bricks, blocks or large rocks . Naturally, under your car to prevent your car from rolling backwards.

 2. If you have hubcaps, remove them.

These are the covers of your wheels. Check you manual on how to remove them. I highly suggest you look at this beforehand and not when you have already blown a tyre.

 3. Next you need to remove the wheel nuts.

These are the nuts or bolts that hold your wheel in place. You will need a wheel brace to do this. Of course the wheel brace comes in different shapes and sizes . Commonly known as a “Spider” . So, the spider wrench is the T shaped wrench. Of course, that should be together with all your other tools. The shape of the wrench makes for easy leverage. However, if your upper body strength is lacking the heft or muscle needed to loosen the lug nuts. Importantly, you may have to resort to step on the T-arm to obtain better leverage. Always remember, left to loosen and right to tighten.

 4. Now you need your car jack to raise your car.

Most cars have a flat plate behind the front wheels and just in front of the back ones for this purpose. Place the jack under the “jacking point” nearest to the tyre to be changed ! Raising the jack with the jack handle to meet the jacking point plate. Double check and make sure your car will be steady once it is raised. Safety is crucial whenever you are working with your car. Now raise your car about 15 cm of the ground. Don’t forget that when you re-fit an inflated spare wheel.Thus, will need room so make sure there is enough space for the spare to be placed on.

 5. by grabbing it with both hands, one on each side.

So after removing the wheel nuts!  Pull the flat wheel straight and off. Quickly,line up your spare with the bolts and slide it on. Replace the lug nuts but do not tighten them completely. When you have lowered your car, use the lug wrench to tighten the lug nuts in opposite pairs. Make sure these are as tight as possible ! Because you absolutely do not want your tyre to come off when you start driving away.

 6. It’s time to clean up and put things back in place.

Put all your tools together and place them back where they were stored. Always put them back in the same place so you know right where to find them in case of emergencies. Knowing where all of the tools are before you get into an emergency situation is suggested. Put your flat tyre where you spare one was and make sure to have it fixed right away.

7. Of course many cars dont have spares now !

many cars now run on run-flat tyres and do not have a spare wheel. In my opinion this is a great idea ! So when a puncture occurs then the driver can carry on driving the car. Albeit at a steady 50 mph ! Cars with runflats can then make their way to a tyre centre and have the problem attended to. Some cars only carry a can of air sealant and no spare wheel. This idea is save on the weight of the car and reduce emissions.

8.I would advise most ladies to join a motoring organisation

Although that you now know how to change your flat tyre ! I would strongly recommend that any motorists and not just ladies should join one of the road side assistance companies. So we all must have noticed how busy our roads are now getting. Especially, on the motorways. Recently, I had the dis-pleasure of having a tyre blowout on the M1 motorway.

Of course, it was dark and raining and was a very frightening experience. However it is a job that I have done all my life and quickly changed the wheel at the roadside. However it did open my mind to the thought that this would have been horrific for a lady driver to attempt this task. Simply it would be far better to join the “AA” “Green Flag” or the “RAC“. Naturally putting your mind at rest !

 A woman alone with her car and a flat tyre could be a signal for the less than honourable to take advantage of the situation. If you have no recourse but to change the tyre yourself, make sure you have some form of protection nearby like pepper spray. Also make sure to call a friend or relative to let them know what happened when your tyre blows so someone is aware of where you are and the situation you are in. This will at least give people you know the information of your whereabouts.

9, Having your tyres in good condition is one way to avoid a flat tyre.

While some causes like a puncture from a nail or other sharp object cannot be avoided. So, keeping your tyres well inflated. Along with careful driving will lessen the chances of your having to change a flat in the future.

And if you need new tyres ! Contact us on www.pellontyres.co.uk as we are independently owned tyre centres across the UK . Consequently, to help you find the right tyre for your need. Its knowledgeable and professional staff will be able to give you brand neutral car safety advice to help you make the right decision for your tyre needs. And if your car needs other types of auto service, they offer than as well.

• An open and honest approach with the customers

• A high standard of work and excellent value for money

• 12 month guarantee on parts and labour

• An open invitation to inspect, review and rate the garages of your choice to make the best informed decision for your needs

 Stay safe on the road ladies!

 

old part worn tyres

Tyres-Tarmac Mix Help Make a New Road A90 and Quieter Driving

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Tyres-Tarmac Mix

Tyres-Tarmac Mix;First UK road to use the scrap tyres mix a great step forward

Breedon Aggregates have successfully completed the relaying of the A90 road in Scotland. Hence, the most remarkable thing about this is that they used a mix of tarmac and shredded waste tyres.

As a result, this is a massive step forward. Consequently,the new Tyres-Tarmac Mix  has a very promising future.Of course, the A90 road runs between Perth and Dundee. Moreover, the road is a duel-carriageway for most of its length. Of course, this particular stretch of road is one of the busiest in the country. Hence, is expected to be a great test for the Tyres-Tarmac Mix experiment. This road carries about 35,000 vehicles a day. So is also exposed to very inclement weather conditions.

As intended, the new material will be rigorously tested over the next few years. One of the most important tests is a skid resistance test. Signs so far are very promising. As a result,the surface has so far passed all the tests.

Tyres-Tarmac Mix from Denmark

New technology for the success of the new mix came from a Danish company,Genan. Enabling, the rubber particles from the shredded tyres to bind with a binding agent at low temperatures. Which also helps the environment because very little heat is required.

Most people know that since 2006, European Rules have banned the disposal of waste tyres to the landfill sites, leaving very large amounts of scrap tyres to find other uses in many various forms of recycling. According to the European Tyre and Rubber Manufacturers Association, nearly 500,000 tons of scrap tyres arose in the UK in 2009. Studies show that for every ton of scrap tyres used for rubber modification of bitumen and asphalt, 1.1 tons of CO2 emissions are saved compared with burning of the tyres for use in Cement kiln heating.

Tyres-Tarmac Mix-One day they may buy our old tyres again?

This is a great step forward and we must thank Breedon Aggregates for their work in this field to turn a waste product such as old tyres into a wonderful new product that will benefit us all in the long run. Breedon are now going to market the new product and sell it under the brand name of Breedon Polymer R+, and the tarmac will be produced at all its English and Scottish plants, a great step forward and who knows that some day companies may once again buy the old tyres from us again ?.

 Please click the link bellow for more information from Breedon Aggregates.

http://www.breedonaggregates.com/news/2012/05/31/breedon-aggregates-gives-a90-a-novel-retread/

mot test-Online Bookings on Increase

MOT Tests Book Early-Impending MOT wave

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MOT Tests Book Early

MOT Tests Book Early

I would like to take this opportunity to warn drivers about the huge impending MOT Test backlog that is imminent. So we are coming up to the anniversary, of the Governments postponement of testing due the Covid 19 pandemic. I and many other experts predict  a mad rush and a possible doubling up of up-coming MOT tests.

Our advice would be to take advantage of 28 day extension that is now open to motorists. This will give motorists a 28 day extra period in which to book in their car for the MOT test. This will mean that your original test date will remain the same for the following years test.

Here at Pellon Autocentre in Halifax UK we have remained busy testing for most of the summer period. Meaning that things can only become busier and probably not been able to cope with the large influx of  the extra overlapping tests from the pandemic.

28 day extension is well advised!

So, by early booking your MOT test then you will be “killing two birds with one stone”. This will spread out the backlog of tests for the MOT stations. Enabling customers to go to their favourite garages for their annual tests. For instance last year we could not cope with all the test presented to us! Thus causing some customers disappointment by having to test the car at a strange and unfamiliar garage.

Testing stations are only allowed a certain amount of test slots in any working day. So by taking advantage of the 28 day period it enables the garages to spread out the work loads. The customer still retains  the correct amount of test time for next year and we are all happier.

The last 18 months have turned the traditional MOT demand curve on its head. And while this caused initial uncertainty for the independent aftermarket, there is now a significant opportunity on the horizon. Nearly three quarters

Source: LKQ Euro Car Parts warn of an impending MOT wave – Garagewire

car suspension parts

Car Suspension Noises-A look at why drivers should have regular Steering and Suspension checks?

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Car Suspension Noises

Car Suspension Noises

The last car to come to us, with a noise problem was a VW GT TDi on a 2002 plate. Accordingly, the noise sounded like it was coming from all around the car. We road tested the car and indeed could hear the noise. He drove the car in the large car park of the local Co-op supermarket, with the window down. The car drove without the creaking noise.

Car Creaking noises-Cars are capable of producing many noises including “creaking”.Creaking is one of the noises, that really annoys the driver. Hence it is one of the most common “noise” problems that we are presented with here at Pellon Autocentre in Halifax, Yorkshire, UK.
Naturally, cars turn up with rattling, squeaking, banging and other sounds, that sometimes can not be explained by our customers. The last car to come to us, with a noise problem was a VW GT TDi on a 2002 plate. The car had done about 69000 miles. So the mileage was low for the year.
Thus, even when the car was driven down his drive. The problem was that the car was making an irritating creaking sound. Surprisingly, the noise sounded like it was coming from all around the car.

Car Suspension Noises can drive you mad?

As a result, we decided to check the cars past history. Finding, that the car was fitted out with some new” anti roll bar bushes” about two months ago. Hence, we replaced the cars “drop links“.
We road tested the car and indeed could hear the noise. He drove the VW fast and slow. He drove the car in the large car park of the local Co-op supermarket, with the window down. Naturally, he could hear the creaking quite clearly with the window down. We have seen this sort of problem before and so we suspected the front suspension could be the problem.The wishbone bearings could also be the problem. We decided to check that the drop link bolts were tight?
They were re-tightened and this solved the problem. The car drove without the creaking noise. The customer was highly delighted and drove off into the traffic a happy man.

catalytic converter

Engine Carbon Clean Service-Pellon Autocentre in Halifax UK can now offer this Engine Cleaning Service

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Engine Carbon Clean Service

Engine Carbon Clean Service

All these new procedures have come about by a change in the MOT testing rules from May 2018.  So, from May 2018 the smoke test limit for Euro 6 and some Euro 5 diesels will be halved. This also ties up with the number of cars that have been having there DPF’s (Diesel particulate Filters) removed completely. So it will now be an MOT test failure if your vehicle does not have an EGR valve fitted and has had it removed.

Of course this will affect drivers who have bought a second hand car and are unaware of its removal. In a statement obtained by Garage Wire the online care repair specialists,  a Department of Transport  spokesperson said:

“We are taking strong action to stop the removal of DPFs. “We expect future changes to the MOT emissions test for diesel vehicles, due to come into force by May 2018, to make it easier to detect vehicles with failing or removed DPFs.”

CONTAMINATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON AN ENGINE

Fuel and Oil are an organic matter, when they are burnt or left to naturally degrade they form contamination, this adheres to different components within the engine, namely:

Over the last 20 years, engines have become more complex and the tolerances within the engine have become finer. As a result, it takes just a small amount of contamination to adversely affect engine performance.

Pellon Autocentre invest in a new Carbon Clean machine

Of  your vehicle can now fail the emissions part of the MOT Test due to the new stricter smoke test that comes under the Euro 5 and Euro 6 lowered limits. So to keep up to speed we here at Pellon Autocentre have invested in a new machine for cleaning up your vehicles engine. This can be done in conjunction with a regular service or to just get your vehicle through the MOT tests stricter emission rules.

Modern engine design, coupled with a drive to reduce harmful emissions, has led to a significant increase in contamination related issues such as

  • Blocked DPF’s
  • Fouled Fuel Injectors
  • MOT emission failures

The Tec4 Carbon Cleaning Machine, backed up with our unique marketing package, allows you to fix these issues with minimal fuss and promote a preventative maintenance solution.

Some of the text in this post and the video was kindly provided by Tec4.

all weather and winter tyres

Nokian Safety Winter Tyres-Worth Thinking About the Winter Ahead? Look At Winter Tyres For Family Safety

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Nokian Safety Winter Tyres

Nokian Safety Winter Tyres

It seems crazy to me? here I am In the middle of August. Writing about winter tyres. This is something that I have done for years now. Unfortunately, I just cant get out of the habit.

I think it may be that the days are already getting shorter. Of course, I am an early riser. Consequently,the mornings are now in darkness at 5 am when I get up and see to my dogs.

So this is when I start to think about the winter and of course, winter tyres. As a result, I always order my first load of logs for the winter fires at this time of year.

Nokian Safety Winter Tyres this winter at Pellon Tyres

Of course winter tyres are the ultimate safety companion for your car. Therefore, a number of separate tests. Have shown that winter tyres are the only tyre that reduces braking distances. Thus, when driving in winter. Winter tyres have a far less stopping distance when braking in snow than the regular summer tyres. Hence that are fitted as original equipment by car manufacturers.

Of course, in many parts of Europe motorists are required by law to fit their car with winter tyres. From November onwards, vehicles that are not fitted with approved winter tyres. Hence, are not allowed to use the roads. According to a number of separate tyre tests. Winter tyres are the only tyre that reduces braking distances when driving in winter.

The countries with winter tyre laws do have a harsher winter than the UK. However as we all know then bad weather can strike at any time. Drivers in say Finland will drive on snow throughout the winter. The UK is different with our climate of mixed weather. it is though a more dangerous scenario. When the snow does arrive, then we are not ready for it. As a result, we get into all sorts of trouble. Trying to drive on snow covered roads with summer tyres fitted to their cars.

Nokian Safety Winter Tyres Whats the difference?

When you look at a winter tyre compared to a summer tyre. Then you will see the main difference? Winter tyres are designed with very small slits called sipes. Down the edges of the main tread blocks. On top of helping with grip, they displace the slush and snow a lot better than other seasonal tyres. In my opinion including all-weather tyres. Summer tyres for example, when going over snow, compact it, making it extremely slippery and solid.

Also winters are made out of a different compound than summer tyres. This includes a silica based material that allows the tyres to flex better. Especially when the temperature drops below 7 degrees C. This allows the tyre sidewall to become more flexible. Thus, giving the tread with all the sipes a better footprint in bad weather. We have nothing but praise from our regular customers. When they have fitted winters and therefore have had no safety issues in any types of weather.

For us the past couple of years our winters have been mild, wet, slushy at worst.So there is now almost an entire generation of drivers. That may have to start learning the skills of snow and ice driving. So, during those late autumn months it would be a good choice to take those summers off and slap on the winters. As I have emphasized . Winter tyres will pay for themselves in terms of control and safety before you know it.

Nokian Safety Winter Tyres a massive safety feature

For a long time, we in the tyre trade have had to dispel a wide spread and out dated belief. Hence,that winter tyres can only be used in icy or snow covered surfaces. Perhaps at one time this was true, but with the advances in rubber compound technology by adding “silica“. Including, tread pattern design. Then these tyres today can be used in many other inclement weather circumstances.

A recent survey in Canada. Reported that those who drive with winter tyres on their cars. As a result suffer less accidents. In fact most of Canada make winter tyres compulsory in the winter months. British Columbia have very stringent tyre laws relating to winter driving. Including a 3.5 mm tread depth on winter tyres. Of all the accidents that happened in Prince Edward Island, only 6% were fitted with winter tyres.

What is the reason behind such laws? Well, it’s pretty obvious – winter tyres significantly help you maintain control during times when perhaps other tyres, not designed for driving in ice, snow or heavy rain would let you down. This includes the drivers here in the UK. For this reason, I have chosen Nokian winter tyres together with General winter tyres as my main tyre lines this winter. Both these tyre brands have world wide recognition for their quality a durability in the toughest of winter weather conditions.

tyres and car servicing

Worn Out Vehicles failing MOT- in record numbers over emissions

Worn Out Vehicles failing MOT

Worn Out Vehicles failing MOT

So, this is something that we at Pellon Autocentre in Halifax have been noticing. However it is not rocket science! Modern day cars are meant to run all the time and have regular servicing. During the on going pandemic then cars have been stood outside houses without  been run at all. This can effect many of the vehicles engine parts ! So causing a failure on emissions when taking the MOT test.

We know for a fact that many cars have missed out on a years serving. So, this can lead to dirty oil and indeed blocked air and oil filters. Even further down the line, then engine valves could be sticking, of course due to the lack of servicing. Older cars will find that their plugs were not changed on the due servicing date. Once again causing the vehicle to have lower emission standards and possibly failing the MOT test.

Other problems due to stood vehicles

So, its not just emission problems that have occurred but other things have become relevant. We have noticed an increase in broken springs and other suspension and steering parts. As I have explained modern cars need to be used and stood about has not done them any good. Such things as coil springs are put under pressure when stood in one place all the time. The springs are under tension and will become more rigid and more likely to break once the car is finally driven. This metal fatigue also causes other tensioned parts to fail when put under pressure of say hitting a pot hole.

Almost 1.3 million vehicles failed their MOT last year because of faults relating to exhaust emissions, new data suggests. A Freedom of Information (FOI) request to the DVSA found more cars have failed on emissions

Source: Vehicles failing MOT in record numbers over emissions

types of tyres-Michelin nokian apollo general and bridgestone runflat tyres

Bridgestone Tyre Safety – How to take care of your tyres-The importance of Tread Depth

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Bridgestone Tyre Safety

Importantly, Bridgestone Tyre Safety is one of those self-explanatory videos. Of course, the video demonstrates the different actions and reactions. Naturally, when tyre are being driven with differing tread depths. For this reason, tyres will act completely different. Mainly, the stopping distances are severely affected.

Of course, most drivers do know this. However, they do not realise just how far a car will travel when braking occurs with little or no tread. This Bridgestone tyres video will show the drivers just how a lack of tread affects their cars performance. Sit back and watch.

Introduced by Tony Jardine, learn more about the impact tread depth can have on your vehicles performance safety as well as how to monitor tyre tread depth and take care of your tyres.

Bridgestone’s Tyre Safety videos

Specifically, show not only what can happen when tyres are not properly maintained. But also just how easy it is to keep tyres in proper working order.

Of course for winter driving you cant be much safer when fitting the Blizzak range . Naturally, bringing together new innovations in tread and materials technology. So delivering the safety and performance you need for your families safety. Significantly, when combating today’s increasingly diverse and unpredictable conditions. So with the Blizzak winter tyre fitted to your vehicle,you can hit the road with total confidence in all winter conditions. Including sunny to slush and snow and everything in between. Engineered in Germany with your safety in mind.
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More essential tyre safety information visit  www.tyresafe.org

motorhome tyre pressures

Motorhome Tyre Pressures are very important for your Caravan or Motorhome

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Motorhome Tyre Pressures

Check the Motorhome Tyre Pressures 

Of course, after the recent “lockdown” many thousands of people will be getting their caravans and motorhomes ready. For the British bank holiday season starting this year with the Easter holiday. Significantly, this is time when thousands of holiday makers will be checking their tyres. Including tyre pressures, ready for their first trips away.

So us Brits do this every year. Even though we know that we will be stuck in massive traffic jams and hold ups.  Wherever we go, but especially to the coast. Never the less we do it every year. We Brits yearn to get away over the bank holiday period and the adjoining school holidays.

What we do not all do is to check our tyres and Tyre Pressures ?

You would think that it was common sense. But many set off and do not think anything about it. These are the ones that we see on the hard shoulder of the motorway. Including, the grass verge. So, having to change a flat tyre or a blown out tyre on their caravan. The worse culprits seem to be the guys who are going camping and towing a little trailer. These small trailers are usually fitted with 400×8 trailer tyres. Similar to wheel barrow tyres. Because they are so small. Therefore, it is imperative that you inflate them to the correct

Tyre Pressures for carrying the weight that you have in the trailer, this will usually be the highest pressure for this type trailer.

I have seen hundreds of these trailers parked up with a wheel missing. Because of the tyre blown out and the owner not having a spare the same size. If you use this type of vehicle! Then you must carry a spare wheel. So, if you are doing sixty mile an hour and you have a puncture in one of these trailers.

Then the small tyre will simply disintegrate. Because of its small size and the weight that it is carrying. Of course, a spare wheel is a necessity. Also make sure that you are buying a spare wheel for a trailer. Importantly, these are usually a six ply tyre that are made for highway and NOT a wheel barrow tyre. I have mentioned this because many people make this huge mistake, we have seen this many times.

This is also a important thing to think about when buying a new tyre for a caravan or mobile home.

Make sure that you buy the correct tyre that has the correct weight carrying loads; It should tell you what tyres to use in the hand book or make sure that you fit the same tyres as your vehicles original equipment.

In the motorhomes the tyres are usually of a higher ply rating than normal car tyres. As we all know some of these vehicles are massive even as big as a double decker bus, so it is very important to get the exact tyres with correct ply rating and load rating, in my opinion it is always best to fit the exact same tyres, even the same makes of tyres, as your original equipment. This will ensure your safety and probably your fuel consumption. I know that our customers are on a tight budget but in this instance buying cheap tyres is not an option, if the vehicle is fitted with Michelin tyres then replace them with exactly the same using the same tyre pressures and them unless you are really unlucky you should have a problem free journey as far as your tyres are concerned.

Tyres can help with fuel consumption

As I have said earlier fuel consumption is very important for the motor home as some of these vehicles will only do about fifteen to twenty mile to the gallon. So having the correct tyre pressures will help to maintain the correct mileage performance. How it works is that if your tyres are under inflated then your vehicle engine has to work much harder to drive along. This is known as “ROLLING RESISTANCE”

Also a good tip is to check your tyre pressures when the tyres are cold and also make sure that you have a valve cap fitted, to ensure that the valve does not leak and reduce your tyre pressures.

You should always know what the weight limit is for your type of vehicle . Importantly, do not exceed these recommendations. Also spread out the weight throughout the vehicle, this will

maximise the stability of the total unit, we have all followed caravans that are swerving about doing 60 mph on the motorway. Of course, this is also illegal and dangerous.

Another really important point that is sometimes overlooked is to keep a spare wheel for your caravan or camping trailer. Also try it on the vehicle before you set off on your journey; we have had to help many caravan owners who were stuck on the M62 motorway because their spare wheel did not fit. They may look the same, but they could have different stud holes and offsets, so try them out before you travel on a journey…See more at: http://tyresafe.org/tyre-safety/caravan-tyre-safety/advice-and-information#sthash.CzT5oBqU.dpuf

Have a safe and care free holiday !

 Keeping tyres correctly inflated ensures an even wear rate leading to longer tyre life. Under-inflated tyres places excess loads on the outer edges of the tyre, causing the shoulders to wear more rapidly. Over-inflated tyres will experience higher wear rates in the centre of the tread.